|| |||© Richard Barnes|
Keywords in this picture :
Places where this species can be found :
- Diare (Tamale - Bolgatanga road) - NSBPGHANA
InterestUsed for fuelwood and charcoal (Wickens et al. 1995). Although relatively fast-growing, A. karroo produces a wood of surprisingly high density - about 800-890 kg/m3. As a fuelwood, it does not produce long-lasting coals like Combretum imberbe or mopane, but it generates a lot of heat and burns very evenly and cleanly with little smoke. It is therefore a preferred fuelwood in many areas where open fires are used for cooking. It also makes an excellent charcoal. Its ability to coppice means that some form of sustainable utilization is possible. The wood is of medium even texture with very wide and creamy brown sapwood and red-brown heartwood. It is not durable and is prone to splitting and twisting. It is also rapidly attacked by a host of wood-boring insects, especially if there is still any bark attached, and is also liable to fungal attack. Leaving logs under water for a year is supposed to reduce insect attack. Although A. karroo produces a tough resilient timber that planes and finishes well, its use is limited by the small size of most trees. It has been used for utility timber and, occasionally, furniture. In the past it has been used for wagon wheels, yokes, coffins, fence posts and rural implements. The inner bark is used for cordage and tanning, having between 13-19% tannin, and as a dye giving a yellow to brown colour for fabrics and a red colour to leather. Infusion of bark is given as an antidote to cattle poisoned by Morea. The red-gold gum is collected and sold commercially for use as a gum arabic substitute, and formerly exported as gomme de Cap. The edible gum, often chewed by children and baboons, is used in the food and pharmaceutical industries, and can also be used as an adhesive. The fibrous inner bark is chewed as well to alieviate thirst. A. karroo is an important rangeland tree. It is always associated with sweetveld grasses - those grasses which remain palatable through the dry season - and provides much nitrogen to the soil through its root nodules and litterfall. However, A. karroo can be invasive in badly managed rangeland, but if the trees are allowed to grow and are then thinned and pruned to allow light to penetrate to the ground, and cattle to access the grass underneath, a parkland can develop with a high potential for meat production. In addition, both the pods and foliage provide good browse for both cattle and wildlife. In Zimbabwe an infusion of roots of A. karroo is used by Ndebele traditional healers against general body pains, and by Shona healers against dizziness, convulsions, gonorrhoea and as an aphrodisiac. Roots are also placed in chicken runs to reduce parasites. A decoction of the bark has been used as an astringent and emetic and as an antidote to 'tulp' (Moraea) poisoning in cattle. A mucilage of the gum relieves thrush in the mouth. Minor uses include the use of thorns as needles, pins and pegs, and the flowers are an important source of pollen and nectar for honeybees. The seeds are a coffee substitute when roasted (Timberlake et al. 1999, Wickens et al 1995).
Other NotesCommon names: South Africa: Munga (SiZulu), Umunga (SiZulu); Zimbabwe: Isinga (Ndebele), sweet thorn, mimosa thorn (English), soetdoring (Afrikaans); munenje (Shona); butema, gaba (Kalanga) Species characteristics: Distribution: Angola (Benguela, Huila); Botswana (Central, South East, Ngamiland, N, Southern); Lesotho; Malawi (Zomba, Dedza, Blantyre, Mulanje, Chiradzulu, Ntchisi); Mozambique (Sulo do save, Gaza, Tete, Maputo, Inhambane, Manica e Sofala, Niassa, Zambezia); South Africa (Transvaal, Natal, Cape, Orange Free State, Other, Ngwavuma, Hlabisa, Babanango, Lower Umfolozi, Queenstown, Gordonia, Pretoria, Port St. Johns, Witbank, Pilgrims Rest, Rustenburg, Klerksdorp, Kaap, Lydenburg, Lourenco Marque, Bethlehem, Waterpoort, Barberton); Swaziland (Hhohho, Stegi, Mahuku); Zambia (Lusaka, Southern, Chiramba); Zimbabwe (Gwanda, Guruve, Gweru, Nyamandhlovu, Chipinge, Bulawayo, Chegutu, Nyanga, Matobo, Chirumanzu, Chimanimani, Marondera, Bubi, Harare, Ndanga, Mutare, Masvingo, Nkayi, Insiza, Zvishavane, Shurugwi, Kwekwe, Makonde, Mazowe, Makoni, Wedza, Mberengwa, Lomagundi, Chivi, Mvuma); Namibia (Kaokoland, Grootfontein, Caprivi, Rehoboth, Windhoek, Otjiwarongo, Maltahohe, Okahandja, Hereroland, Karibib, Gobabis, Mariental, Keetmanshoop, Luderitz, Wilhelmstal). Specimen total: 998 Degree squares: 150 Collection years: 1800-1996 Phenology: Flowering period: Jan(111), Feb(70), Mar(45), Apr(21), May(9), Jun(3), Jul(1), Aug(3), Sep(3), Oct(11), Nov(61), Dec(97) Fruiting period: Jan(101), Feb(65), Mar(84), Apr(74), May(41), Jun(21), Jul(10), Aug(7), Sep(8), Oct(16), Nov(49), Dec(66) Altitude range: 1- (1-1600) -2406m
CollectorBarnes, R. D.