|| |||© Chris W. Fagg|
Keywords in this picture :
Places where this species can be found :
- Tamale - Yendi road - NSBPGHANA
InterestIn west Africa the bark and root extracts are widely used for traditional medicines, probably mainly due to their high tannin contents (Burkhill 1995). The coarse textured sapwood is of medium density (655-720 kg/m3) and not very durable. However in Ethiopia it is used in making mills and presses, and in the Sahel as tool handles (Hedberg and Edwards 1989). In southern Africa the wood has been used for rough furniture and crates, but it moves seasonally. It only has moderate borer and termite resistance and is susceptible to sapstain. It is a preferred firewood in Tanzania and also used for firewood and charcoal in the Sahelian regions. Bark fibre is also used for cordage, and a decoction of root bark as a vermifuge and for coughs (Wickens et al. 1995). Pods and foliage are eaten by cattle, sheep, elephant and rhinosorus however green immature pods sometimes contain prussic acid which can cause fatalities. In Senegal, the foliage also is said to contain prussic acid during the rainy season, when livestock avoid eating the leaves, especially when wilted, however late into the dry season the leaves provide an important forage. Long thorns are said to deter browsing on mature shoots. The thorny branches are cut and used to make livestock pens (Bomas), the trees as live hedges and as shade and windbreaks. Flowers make a good bee forage, and hives are often placed in the trees. Produces a gum used in the Sahel in local medicines and inks, baboons also eat the gum.
Other NotesSpecies characteristics: Medium to large tree to 25 m tall, crown mostly spreading and flat but can be rounded in the typical variety. Has thick woody indehiscent pods, paired thorns and yellow white flowers in a capitate inflorescence. This species is very variable, and is seperated into 3 varieties on the pubescence of young branches, size of leaflets and crown shape, although there are intermediates. Related to A. rehmanniana and A. negrii. Widely used throughout its range, the pods and shoots provide a useful fodder (but there are reports of immature pods releasing prussic acid), flowers are good for honey production, and the wood which is of medium density and not very durable is used for tool-handles and mortars. Occurs in open grassland and woodland, often in river valleys and along drainage lines. In east and southern Africa the species is common at middle altitudes. Common names: var. sieberana: Chad: Kouk (Arabic); Ethiopia: Lafto (Gallinia), Lalato (Guji), Teeeyep (Anuak); Kenya: Mgunga mkuu (Swahili); Nigeria: Katalabu (Hausa); Sudan: Ab inderowa (Baggara Arabic), Alda (Fur), Kak (Arabic), Kodo (Bor), Kuk (Arabic), Kuk (Baggara Arabic), Kuka (Arabic), Shebil (Hamez), Teyb (Nueyr); Tanzania: Mzona (Vidunda); Uganda: Alui (Dhopadhola). var. woodii: Angola: Mussongue (Ganguela); Kenya: Leidet (Kipsigis), Leldet (Kipsigis), Ol'asiti (Masai), Ol'debesi (Masai), Oltepesi (Masai), Seet (Kipsigis); Malawi: Nzonone (Chichewa); Mozambique: Ibazhwa (Chindao), Munanga (Shona); Rwanda: Uminyinya (Kinyaruanda), Umunyinya (Kinyaruanda), Umuunyarugera (Kinyaruanda); Sudan: Kuk (Arabic), Salgam (Arabic); Sudan/Uganda: Asilihai (Latuka), Bukui (Kuku); Tanzania: Ichese (Nyiha), Ilowe (Nyiha), Ishala (Nyiha), Lipeto (Bema), Mgando (Haya), Mgunga (Bende), Mgunga (Kiswahili), Mgunga (Swahili), Mugunga (Kihehe), Muhaha (Kizanaki), Munyaweru (Kizinza), Ndarara (Kimeru), Nsugwa (Kinyakyusa), Omunyanya (Kikerewe), Suha (Kisuk), Umsionga (Chifipa); Uganda: Munyinya (Luganda), Muwawa (Luganda), Omuminya (Ankole); Zambia: Kasele (Chikaonde), Munga (Tonga), Munga (Tuba), Mutubatuba (Chitonga), Muwgawuishi (Bemba). var. villosa: Ghana: Gwaza (Kiosli), Sabiripungo (Kassena). Distribution : var. sieberana: Cameroon (Adamawa); Ethiopia (Shewa, Sidamo, Kefa, Ilubabor, SW); Kenya (Rift valley, Nyanza, Kwale, Mombasa); Malawi (Zomba, Dowa, Nkata Bay); Mozambique (Cabo Delgado, Sofala, Niassa, Nampula, Zambezia, Porto Amelia); Nigeria (Oyo, Ilorin, Adamawa, Bornu, Benue Plateau, Kwara, Katagum, Benue); Rwanda (Biumba); Senegal ; Sudan (Darfur, Kordofan, Ash Sharqiyah, Al Wusta, Al Istiw'a'iyah, Aali an Nil, Darfour); Tanzania (Tanga, Uzaramo, Maswa, Lushoto, Mwanza, Kigoma, Masai, Arusha, Mpwapwa, Pangani, Rufiji, Morogoro, Kilosa, Kilwa, Ulanga); Uganda (Mbale, Karamoja, Teso, Toro, West Nile); Zaire (Kibali Ituri, Ubangi Uele, Dungu, Lac Albert, Haut Katanga); Zambia (North western); Zimbabwe (Harare, Gatooma); Central African Republic (Bossangoa, Boguila, Bambari); Chad (Kanem); Eritrea. Distribution : var. woodii: Angola (Huila, Cunene, Cuanza sul, Malanje); Botswana (Chobe, Ngamiland, Northern); Burundi (Bubanza, Bujumbura); Congo Republic ); Ethiopia (Shewa, Tigray, Kefa); Kenya (Rift valley, Central, Masai, Nyanza, Nakuru, Kericho, Narok, Baringo, Muranga, Kisii); Malawi (Zomba, Blantyre, Mulanje, Rumphi, Chikwawa, Machinga, Mzimba, Lilongwe, Chitipa, Kasungu, Northern); Mozambique (Cabo Delgado, Tete, Manica e Sofala, Niassa, Manica, Nampula, Zambezia); Rwanda (Biumba, Mutara); South Africa (Transvaal, Natal, Pietersburg, Pietermaritzburg, Witbank, Acornhoek, Pilgrims Rest); Sudan (Darfur); Swaziland (Hhohho, Manzini, Mdzimba hills); Tanzania (Mpanda, Njombe, Southern Highlands, Nzega, Kondoa, Mbeya, Iringa, Mbulu, Musoma, Mwanza, Buha, Kigoma, Shinyanga, Arusha, Mpwapwa, Bukoba, Singida, Chunya, Ufipa, Rungwe, Ngara, Mpanda/Tabora); Uganda (Mengo, Karamoja, Kigezi, Masaka, Ankole, Toro, West Nile, Mubende); Zaire (Katanga, Lacs Edouard et Kivu, Ubangi Uele, Dungu, Lac Albert, Haut Katanga); Zambia (Lusaka, Southern, Western, Northern, Eastern, Copperbelt, Central, Broken Hill, Namwala, Petanke, Mazabuka, Livingstone, Mpika, North western); Zimbabwe (Hwange, Gweru, Bulawayo, Nyanga, Matobo, Bikita, Sebungwe, Harare, Mutare, Masvingo, Insiza, Shurugwi, Makonde, Mazowe, Chivi, Gwelo, Marandellas, Melsetter, Sipolilo); Namibia (Caprivi, Owambo, Kavango, Caprivi Oos). Distribution: var. villosa: Burkina Faso; Cameroon ; Ghana (Northern, Upper, Western); Nigeria (Sokoto, Bida); Rwanda (Biumba); Senegal (Saint Louis); Sudan (Darfur); Togo ; Central African Republic; Dahomey . Altitude range: var. sieberana: 5-2042m; var. woodii: 30- (600-2000) -2150m; var. villosa: 182-1768m
CollectorFagg, C. W.