tortilis ssp. (Forssk.) Hayne
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Places where this species can be found :
- Bilisu Forest Reserve - NSBPGHANA
InterestBrowsed by camels, sheep and goats and occasionally cattle in Northern Africa and goats and gazelle eat pods in the Negev and Sinai deserts. Wood is used by nomads for firewood, charcoal, tool handles and tent poles. Bark fibre used for cordage. Gum is harvested in Niger for local medicinal uses. The Touregs regard a leaf decoction as antimalarial. The scented flowers are a source of pollen and nectar for the bees (Wickens et al 1995).
Other NotesSpecies characteristics: Medium to large tree to 21 m tall, or sometimes a multistemmed shrub or bush, crown typically flattened and spreading, but sometimes rounded (ssp. raddiana) and more open. Has spirally twisted indehiscent pods, both hooked and long straight stipular spines, and whitish fragrant flowers in round inflorescences. The species is vary variable, seperated into six infraspecific taxa including four recognised subspecies on the basis of glands and hairs on the pods and young branchlets and crown shape. This species can dominate many savanna communities and provides an important source of browse for wild and domesticated animals. Found scattered on old sand dunes and rocky scarps, or in deciduous woodland on deep alluvial calcareous soils often indicating a higher water table or drainage lines. It can also occur on lateritic gravels, saline and sodic soils, and often colonises disturbed sites. Used in silvipastural systems, sand dune stabilisation and shelterbelts, as well as fuelwood, honey source, tannin, gums for medicine, cordage and constructional uses in nomadic societies. It is planted as an exotic in Rajasthan, India and Pakistan. In Africa, it is often the tree that extends furthest into the Sahara desert. Common names: var raddiana: Chad: Garatt (Kouka); Kenya: Munga (S.Lamu), Munga (Swahili); Mauritania: Tamat (Mauritania); Nigeria: Kindil (Kanuri); Senegal: Bakan Tchili (Toucouleur), Sandandour (Wolof), Seing (Ouoloff), Sing (Woloff), Singue (Oloff). var. pubescens: Niger: Tamat (Hausa); Sudan: Samr (Arabic), Seyal (Arabic). Distribution: var. raddiana : Burkina Faso (Centre); Egypt (Gebl Elba); Kenya (Coast, Taita, Lamu); Mali (Gao, Mopti, Segou, Kayes); Mauritania (Tiris-Zemmour, Hodh Oriental); Niger (Niamey); Nigeria (North East, Northern, Maiduguri, Bornu); Saudi Arabia ; Senegal (Saint Louis, Louga, Diourbel); Somalia (Shabeellaha Hoose, Banaadir, Jubbada hoose, Benaadir, NE); Sudan (Red Sea); Algeria; Chad (Chari Baguirmi, Kanem) Libya. var. pubescens: Mali (Gao); Niger (Niamey, Agadez); Senegal (Saint Louis); Sudan (Khartoum, El Gezira); Yemen. Altitude range: var. raddiana: 5- (5-600) -1026m; var. pubescens: 700-1900m