tortilis ssp. (Forssk.) Hayne
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Places where this species can be found :
- Bilisu Forest Reserve - NSBPGHANA
InterestFoliage and pods are eaten by cattle, sheep and goats througout its range, it is also browsed by baboons and giraffe, especially the pods, and bark can be stripped by elephants sometimes so severely that it kills the tree. Important livestock browse, because it is one of the first species to sprout new leaves at the end of the dry season. It is a well known honey source, large barrel hives are often placed in its trees, such as in Baringo district, northern Kenya. Said to produce an edible gum. Bast yields a strong fibre that is used by the Mbeere for hut ties and weaving into baskets. The thorny branches are cut and used by the Mbeere for livestock pens, and the tree as a live hedge and shade tree. The resinous twigs are twisted into torches for honey hunters and bee keepers. For Somali nomadic huts, the flexible roots used for making hoops, bark for covering mats and inner bark for string used to stitch them. The inner bark is chewed to alleviate coughing (Wickens et al. 1995).
Other NotesSpecies characteristics: Medium to large tree to 21 m tall, or sometimes a multistemmed shrub or bush, crown typically flattened and spreading, but sometimes rounded (ssp. raddiana) and more open. Has spirally twisted indehiscent pods, both hooked and long straight stipular spines, and whitish fragrant flowers in round inflorescences. The species is vary variable, seperated into six infraspecific taxa including four recognised subspecies on the basis of glands and hairs on the pods and young branchlets and crown shape. This species can dominate many savanna communities and provides an important source of browse for wild and domesticated animals. Found scattered on old sand dunes and rocky scarps, or in deciduous woodland on deep alluvial calcareous soils often indicating a higher water table or drainage lines. It can also occur on lateritic gravels, saline and sodic soils, and often colonises disturbed sites. Used in silvipastural systems, sand dune stabilisation and shelterbelts, as well as fuelwood, honey source, tannin, gums for medicine, cordage and constructional uses in nomadic societies. It is planted as an exotic in Rajasthan, India and Pakistan. In Africa, it is often the tree that extends furthest into the Sahara desert. Common names: var. spirocarpa: Botswana: Moshu (Tswana); Ethiopia: Ajo (Gallinia), Tedecha (Amharic); Kenya: Dadach (Boran), Dadacha (Boran), Dahr (Rendille), Dewess (Turkana), Didiha (Galla), Eluwo (Turkana), Etir (Turkana), Ewoi (Turkana), Kilaa (Kamba), Kura (Somali), Ltepes (Samburu), Moghaa (Kamba), Oltepesi (Masai), Ses (Pokot), Sess (Pokot), Sesya (Tugen), Stepes (Samburu); Malawi: Chiwiriri (Nkhonde), Mfungwa (Chichewa), Mlonga (Yao), Mnyozwa (Tumbuka); Mozambique: Muzunba (Tete), Muzunga (Tete), Zunga (Tete); Namibia: Haak-en-steek (Africaans); Sudan: Asafalai (Latuka), Nyangatom (Turkana), Samr (Arabic); Tanzania: Kiloriti (Kimasai), Kitete (Kiakie), Mbugugu (Kihehe), Mgongwe (Kimbu), Mgunga (Sukuma), Mkongwe (Ligua), Muyumba (Kiswahili), Mwaligunza (Kigogo), Oldebesi (Masai); Uganda: Ewoi (Turkana); Zambia: Kafifi (Kunda), Mupambamewa (Chilesa); Zimbabwe: Isiga esimuyama (Ndebele). var. crinita: Kenya: Oltepesi (Masai); Namibia: Haak-en-steek (Africaans); Tanzania: Mukangako (Tirdiga). Distribution: var. spirocarpa: Angola (Huila); Botswana (Chobe, Northern Division, Ngamiland); Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia (Harerge, Shewa, Awash valley, Sidamo, Tigray, Welo, Bale); Kenya (Turkana, Rift valley, Coast, Central, Masai, Kajiado, Garissa, Machakos, Eastern, West Pokot, Kitui, Narok, Taita, Maralal, Samburu, Meru, Moyale, West Suk, Baringo, Mombasa, Lamu, Pokot, Marsabit); Malawi (Karonga, Rumphi, Mangochi, Chikwawa, Nsanje); Mozambique (Gaza, Tete, Manica e Sofala, Manica); Somalia (Hiiraan, Galguduud, Mudug, Shabeellaha Hoose, Sanaag, Bay, Nugaal, Bari, Sool, Woqooyi Galbeed); South Africa (Transvaal); Sudan (Darfur, Equatoria, Ash Sharqiyah, Al Istiw'a'iyah, Al Kartum); Tanzania (Central, Handeni, Korogwe, Southern Highlands, Tanga, Northern, Lake, Mapanda, Kangata-Handeni, Nzega, Kahama, Uzaramo, Lushoto, Mbeya, Iringa, Mbulu, Musoma, Shinyanga, Masai, Mpwapwa, Pare, Dodoma, Morogoro, Kilosa, Ufipa); Uganda (Karamoja); Zambia (Southern, Northern, Eastern, Copperbelt, Central); Zimbabwe (Binga, Buhera, Hwange, Guruve, Gokwe, Hurungwe, Chiredzi, Chipinge, Chimanimani, Bikita, Mutoko, Mutare, Centenary); Namibia (Kaokoland, Tsumeb, Grootfontein, Caprivi, Otjiwarongo, Owambo, Hereroland, Kavango, Caprivi Oos); Eritrea. var. crinita: Angola (Benguela, Mocamedes); Botswana (Chobe, Northern Division); Kenya (Central, Masai, Kajiado, Machakos); Somalia ; Tanzania (Central, Southern Highlands, Mbala, Iringa, Mbulu, Musoma, Arusha, Dodoma); Namibia (Tsumeb). Altitude range: var. spirocarpa: 40- (200-1600) -1980m, var. crinita: 560- (800-1400) -1676m